New Training Standards

We are constantly looking to improve our treatment and training protocols and programs. Over the last three years, we have undertaken a project regarding the efficacy of our training programs. There are two significant changes that we are now ready to implement based on data from extensive research studies.

TIME UNDER LOAD: 90-120 SEC

While training independently, all clients should be now be training from 90-120 seconds on all machines.

This is based on research that shows that a longer time under tension prior to the point of exhaustion is associated with a longer-term increase in the rate of muscle gain. Research has also shown that 120 seconds is the optimal time frame for training muscles, as long as you train to the point of fatigue.

This means that if you can train for more than 120 seconds, then your weight is too low and if you cannot train for at least 90 seconds, then your weight is too high.

CADENCE: 4-2-4-2

Our traditional cadence was moving the weight for 4 seconds, holding for 2 seconds, and then moving the weight for 4 seconds again. We are now adding another 2 second hold at the end position without the weight touching the weight stack.

Research has shown that isometric holds at the end position promote growth in the length of the muscle. In addition, building momentum from a hold rather than going from one movement straight into another is safer for the body. This new standard will make our training safer and promote better technique.

If you have any questions on our new standards or would like more information, please speak to a member of staff.

References:

Aquino CF, Fonseca ST, Gonçalves GGP, et al (2010) Stretching versus strength training in lengthened position in subjects with tight hamstring muscles: A randomized controlled trial. Man Ther 15:26–31. doi: 10.1016/j.math.2009.05.006

Baroni BM, Geremia JM, Rodrigues R, et al (2013) Muscle architecture adaptations to knee extensor eccentric training: Rectus femoris vs. vastus lateralis. Muscle Nerve 48:498–506. doi: 10.1002/mus.23785

Blazevich AJ, Cannavan D, Coleman DR, Horne S (2007) Influence of concentric and eccentric resistance training on architectural adaptation in human quadriceps muscles. J Appl Physiol 103:1565–1575. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00578.2007

Boakes JL, Foran J, Ward SR, Lieber RL (2007) CASE REPORT: Muscle Adaptation by Serial Sarcomere Addition 1 Year after Femoral Lengthening: Clin Orthop 456:250–253. doi: 10.1097/01.blo.0000246563.58091.af

Burkholder TJ, Lieber RL (2001) Sarcomere length operating range of vertebrate muscles during movement. J Exp Biol 204:1529– 1536.

Franchi MV, Atherton PJ, Reeves ND, et al (2014) Architectural, functional and molecular responses to concentric and eccentric loading in human skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol 210:642–654. doi: 10.1111/apha.12225

Lynn R, Morgan DL (1994) Decline running produces more sarcomeres in rat vastus intermedius muscle fibers than does incline running. J Appl Physiol 77:1439–1444.

McMahon GE, Morse CI, Burden A, et al (2014) Impact of Range of Motion During Ecologically Valid Resistance Training Protocols on Muscle Size, Subcutaneous Fat, and Strength: J Strength Cond Res 28:245–255. doi: 10.1519/ JSC.0b013e318297143a

Reeves ND, Maganaris CN, Longo S, Narici MV (2009) Differential adaptations to eccentric versus conventional resistance training in older humans: Eccentric resistance training in old age. Exp Physiol 94:825–833. doi: 10.1113/expphysiol.2009.046599

Reeves ND, Narici MV, Maganaris CN (2004) In vivo human muscle structure and function: adaptations to resistance training in old age: Muscle adaptations to training in old age. Exp Physiol 89:675–689. doi: 10.1113/expphysiol.2004.027797

Seynnes O, Singh MAF, Hue O, et al (2004) Physiological and functional responses to low-moderate versus high-intensity progressive resistance training in frail elders. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 59:M503–M509.

Spector Architectural Alterations of Rat Hind-Limb Skeletal Muscles Immobilized at Different Lengths.https://www. researchgate.net/profile/Eric_Sternlicht_PhD/publication/16115418_Architectural_alterations_of_rat_hindlimb_muscles_ immobilized_at_different_lengths/links/00463517dbb4e91500000000.pdf. Accessed 6 Dec 2016

Tabary JC, Tabary C, Tardieu C, et al (1972) Physiological and structural changes in the cat’s soleus muscle due to immobilization at different lengths by plaster casts. J Physiol 224:231.

Williams PE (1988) Effect of intermittent stretch on immobilised muscle. Ann Rheum Dis 47:1014–1016. Williams PE, Goldspink G (1971) Longitudinal growth of striated muscle fibres. J Cell Sci 9:751–767.

Burd NA, West DWD, Staples AW, et al (2010) Low-Load High Volume Resistance Exercise Stimulates Muscle Protein Synthesis More Than High-Load Low Volume Resistance Exercise in Young Men. PLoS ONE 5:e12033. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012033

Cermak NM, Res PT, de Groot LC, et al (2012) Protein supplementation augments the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 96:1454–1464. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.037556

Moore DR, Robinson MJ, Fry JL, et al (2008) Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 89:161–168. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26401

Die Kumar V, Selby A, Rankin D, et al (2009) Age-related differences in the dose-response relationship of muscle protein synthesis to resistance exercise in young and old men: Age-related effects of exercise on muscle anabolism. J Physiol 587:211–217. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2008.164483

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